Tuesday, April 16, 2024

TRENDS IN DATA INFRASTRUCTURE – Matt Turck


(word: that is half III of the 2023 MAD Panorama. The panorama PDF is right here, and the interactive model is right here)

Within the hyper-frothy setting of 2019-2021, the world of knowledge infrastructure (nee Large Information) was one of many hottest areas for each founders and VCs.

It was dizzying and enjoyable on the identical time, and maybe a bit of bizarre to see a lot market enthusiasm for merchandise and corporations which might be in the end very technical in nature.

Regardless, because the market has cooled down, that second is over. Whereas good corporations will proceed to be created in any market cycle, and “sizzling” market segments will proceed to pop up, the bar has definitely escalated dramatically by way of differentiation and high quality for any new knowledge infrastructure startup to get actual curiosity from potential clients and buyers.

Right here is our tackle a few of the key tendencies within the knowledge infra market in 2023.

The primary couple are larger stage and must be fascinating to everybody, the others are extra within the weeds:

  • Brace for influence: bundling and consolidation 
  • The Trendy Information Stack beneath stress 
  • The tip of ETL?
  • Reverse ETL vs CDP
  • Information mesh, merchandise, contracts: coping with organizational complexity
  • General: A basic pattern in the direction of convergence
  • Bonus: What influence will AI have on knowledge and analytics?

Brace for influence: bundling and consolidation 

If there’s one factor the MAD panorama makes apparent yr after yr, it’s that the information/AI market is extremely crowded.  

Lately, the information infrastructure market was very a lot in “let a thousand flowers bloom” mode.  

The Snowflake IPO (the most important software program IPO ever) acted as a catalyst for this complete ecosystem. Founders began actually tons of of corporations, and VCs fortunately funded them (and once more, and once more) inside a number of months. New classes (e.g. reverse ETL, metrics shops, knowledge observability) appeared and have become instantly crowded with a lot of hopefuls.

On the shopper facet, discerning consumers of expertise, usually present in scale ups or public tech corporations, have been prepared to experiment and take a look at the brand new factor, with little oversight from the CFO workplace. This resulted in lots of instruments being tried and bought in parallel. 

Now, the music has stopped. 

On the shopper facet, consumers of expertise are beneath rising funds stress and CFO management. Whereas knowledge/AI will stay a precedence for a lot of even throughout a recessionary interval, they’ve too many instruments as it’s, and so they’re being requested to do extra with much less.  In addition they have much less sources to engineer, customise or sew collectively something. They’re much less prone to be experimental, or work with immature instruments and unproven startups. They’re extra prone to decide established distributors that supply tightly built-in suites of merchandise, stuff that “simply works.” 

This leaves the market with too many early stage knowledge infrastructure corporations doing too many overlapping issues.  

Specifically, there’s an ocean of “single characteristic” knowledge infrastructure (or MLOps) startups (maybe too harsh a time period, as they’re simply at an early stage) which might be going to wrestle to fulfill this new bar.  These corporations are usually younger (1-4 years in existence) and because of restricted time on earth, their product remains to be largely a single characteristic, though each firm hopes to develop right into a platform; they’ve some good clients, however not a powerful product market-fit simply but; their ARR is low, usually under $5M; they’re venture-backed, usually raised at 50x-200x ARR within the final couple of years; they compete with a bunch of different VC-backed startups led by good founders who’re roughly on the identical stage; they’re unprofitable with a money runway starting from 6 months to three years. 

This class of corporations has an uphill battle in entrance of them – an amazing quantity of rising to do, in a context the place consumers are going to be weary and VC money scarce.

Count on the start of a Darwinian interval forward. The most effective (or luckiest, or greatest funded) of these corporations will discover a solution to develop, broaden from a single characteristic to a platform (say, from knowledge high quality to a full knowledge observability platform), and deepen their buyer relationships. 

Others can be a part of an inevitable wave of consolidation, both as a tuck-in acquisition for a much bigger platform, or as a startup-on-startup non-public mixture. These transactions can be small, and unlikely to supply the sort of returns founders and buyers have been hoping for. (We aren’t ruling out the opportunity of multi-billion greenback offers within the subsequent 12-18 months, particularly in something that has to do with AI, however these are prone to be few and much between, at the least till potential public acquirers ee the sunshine on the finish of the tunnel by way of the recessionary market). 

Nonetheless, small acquisitions and startup mergers can be higher than merely going out of enterprise. Chapter, an inevitable a part of the startup world, can be far more frequent than in the previous few years, as corporations can’t elevate their subsequent spherical or discover a house.  As many startups are nonetheless sitting on the money they raised within the final yr or two, that wave has not even actually began but.

On the prime of the market, the bigger gamers have already been in full product growth mode. It’s been the cloud hyperscaler’s technique all alongside to maintain including merchandise to their platform. Now Snowflake and Databricks, the rivals in a titanic shock to change into the default platform for all issues knowledge and AI (see the 2021 MAD panorama), are doing the identical.

Databricks appears to be on a mission to launch a product in nearly each field of the MAD panorama. It gives an information lake(home), streaming capabilities, an information catalog (Unity Catalog, now with lineage), a question engine (Photon), a complete collection of knowledge engineering instruments, an information market, knowledge sharing capabilities, and an information science and enterprise ML platform. This product growth has been completed nearly completely organically, with a really small variety of tuck-in acquisitions alongside the best way – Datajoy and Cortex Labs in 2022.

Snowflake has additionally been releasing options at a speedy tempo. It has change into extra acquisitive as effectively. It introduced three acquisitions within the first couple of months of 2023 already: LeapYear, SnowConvert and Myst AI. And it made its first massive acquisition when it picked up Streamsets for $800M. 

Confluent, the general public firm constructed on prime of open-source streaming venture Kafka, can be making fascinating strikes by increasing to Flink, a very talked-about streaming processing engine. It simply acquired Immerok. This was a fast acquisition, as Immerok was based in Could 2022 by a group of Flink committees and PMC members, funded with $17M in October and purchased in January 2023. 

Nicely-funded, unicorn kind startups are additionally beginning to broaden aggressively, beginning to encroach on different’s territories in an try and develop right into a broader platform.

For example, transformation chief dbt Labs first introduced a product growth into the adjoining semantic layer space in October 2022. Then, it acquired an rising participant within the house, Remodel (dbt’s weblog put up offers a pleasant overview of the semantic layer and metrics retailer idea) in February 2023. To be taught extra about dbt, see my dialog with Tristan Helpful, CEO, dbt Labs at Information Pushed NYC

Some classes in knowledge infrastructure really feel notably ripe for a consolidation of some kind – the MAD panorama offers a superb visible assist for this, as potential for consolidation maps fairly carefully with the fullest containers:

“ETL” and “Reverse ETL”: During the last three or 4 years, the market has funded a superb variety of ETL startups (to maneuver knowledge into the warehouse), in addition to a separate group of reverse ETL startups (to maneuver knowledge out of the warehouse).  It’s unclear what number of startups the market can maintain in both class. Reverse ETL corporations are beneath stress from totally different angles (see under), and it’s attainable that each classes could find yourself merging.  ETL firm Airbyte acquired Reverse ETL startup Grouparoo. A number of corporations like Hevo Information place as end-to-end pipelines, delivering each ETL and reverse ETL (with some transformation too), as does knowledge syncing specialist Section. Might ETL market chief FIvetran purchase or (much less seemingly) merge with considered one of its Reverse ETL companions like Census or Hightouch?

“Information High quality & Observability”: The market has seen a glut of corporations that each one need to be the “Datadog of knowledge”. What Datadog does for software program (guarantee reliability and reduce utility downtime), these corporations need to do for knowledge – detect, analyze and repair all points with respect to knowledge pipelines. These corporations come on the downside from totally different angles – some do knowledge high quality (declaratively or via machine studying), others do knowledge lineage, others do knowledge reliability. Information orchestration corporations additionally play within the house. A lot of these corporations have glorious founders, are backed by premier VCs and have constructed high quality merchandise. Nevertheless, they’re all converging in the identical route, in a context the place demand for knowledge observability remains to be comparatively nascent. To be taught extra about corporations within the house: see this Information Pushed NYC discuss by Gleb Mezhanskiy, CEO of Datafold or my Information Pushed NYC dialog with Barr Moses, CEO, Monte Carlo

Information Catalogs”:  As knowledge turns into extra complicated and widespread throughout the enterprise, there’s a want for an organized stock of all knowledge belongings.  Enter knowledge catalogs, which ideally additionally present search, discovery and knowledge administration capabilities. Whereas there’s a clear want for the performance, there are additionally many gamers within the class, with good founders and powerful VC backing, and right here as effectively, it’s unclear what number of the market can maintain. It’s also unclear whether or not knowledge catalogs will be separate entities exterior of broader knowledge governance platforms long run. For a glimpse into fascinating knowledge catalog corporations, see my Information Pushed NYC dialog with Mark Grover, CEO of Stemma, and this nice Information Pushed NYC presentation by Shinji Kim, CEO of Choose Star.  Additionally, for a broader overview of Information Governance, see my Information Pushed NYC dialog with Felix Van de Maele, CEO, Collibra

“MLOps”: Whereas MLOps sits within the ML/AI part of the MAD panorama, it’s also infrastructure and it’s prone to expertise a few of the identical circumstances because the above.  Like the opposite classes, MLOps performs a vital position within the general stack, and it’s propelled by the rising significance of ML/AI within the enterprise.  Nevertheless, there’s a very massive variety of corporations within the class, most of that are effectively funded however early on the income entrance.  They began from totally different locations (mannequin constructing, characteristic shops, deployment, transparency, and many others.) however as they attempt to go from single-feature to a broader platform, they’re on a collision course with one another. Additionally, lots of the present MLOps corporations have primarily centered on promoting to scale-ups and tech corporations.  As they go upmarket, they might begin bumping into the enterprise AI platforms which have been promoting to International 2000 corporations for some time, like Dataiku, Datarobot, H2O, in addition to the cloud hyperscalers.  For an fascinating glimpse into MLOps, particularly on the belief and explainability facet, see my Information Pushed NYC dialog with Krishna Gade, CEO of Fiddler

The Trendy Information Stack beneath stress

An indicator of the previous few years has been the rise of the “Trendy Information Stack” (MDS). Half structure, half de facto advertising alliance amongst distributors, the MDS is a collection of recent, cloud-based instruments to gather, retailer, rework and analyze knowledge. On the middle of it, there’s the cloud knowledge warehouse (Snowflake, and many others.). Earlier than the information warehouse, there are numerous instruments (Fivetran, Matillion, Airbyte, Meltano, and many others) to extract knowledge from their authentic sources and dump it into the information warehouse. On the warehouse stage, there are different instruments to remodel knowledge, the “T” in what was referred to as ETL (extract rework load) and has been reversed to ELT (right here dbt Labs reigns largely supreme). After the information warehouse, there are different instruments to investigate the information (that’s the world of BI, for enterprise intelligence), or extract the remodeled knowledge and plug again into SaaS purposes (a course of referred to as “reverse ETL”).

In different phrases, an actual meeting chain, with many instruments dealing with totally different phases of the method:

Up till not too long ago, the MDS was a rising and really cooperative world. As Snowflake’s fortunes stored rising, so would your complete ecosystem round it.

Now, the world has modified.  As value management turns into paramount, some could query the philosophy that has been on the coronary heart of the fashionable method to knowledge administration for the reason that Hadoop days – maintain all of your knowledge, dump all of it someplace (an information lake, lakehouse or warehouse) and work out what to do with it later. This method led to the rise of knowledge warehouses, the centerpiece of the MDS, nevertheless it has turned out to be costly, and never all the time that helpful (learn this good piece: “Large Information is Useless”).  New applied sciences like DucksDB, which allow embedded interactive analytics, supply a attainable new method to OLAP (analytics).

The MDS is now beneath stress. In a world of tight budgets and rationalization, it’s nearly too apparent a goal. It’s complicated (as clients have to sew the whole lot collectively and take care of a number of distributors). It’s costly (a number of copying and transferring knowledge; each vendor within the chain needs their income and margin; clients usually want an in-house group of knowledge engineers to make all of it work, and many others). And it’s, arguably, elitist (as these are probably the most bleeding-edge, best-in-breed instruments, serving the wants of the extra subtle customers with the extra superior use instances).

As stress will increase, what occurs when MDS corporations cease being pleasant and begin competing with each other for smaller buyer budgets?

As an apart, the complexity of the MDS has given rise to a brand new class of distributors that “bundle” varied merchandise beneath one absolutely managed platform (as talked about above, we created a brand new field within the 2023 MAD that includes corporations like Y42 or Mozart Information).  The underlying distributors are a few of the normal suspects in MDS, the advantage of these platforms being that they summary away each the enterprise complexity of managing these distributors individually and the technical complexity of sewing collectively the assorted options.  Value noting that some absolutely managed platforms have constructed the entire suite of functionalities themselves and don’t bundle third celebration distributors.

The tip of ETL?

As a twist on the above, there’s a parallel dialogue in knowledge circles as as to whether ETL ought to even be a part of knowledge infrastructure going ahead. ETL, even with trendy instruments, is a painful, costly and time consuming a part of knowledge engineering. 

At its Re:Invent convention final November, Amazon requested “What if we may get rid of ETL completely? That might be a world we might all love. That is our imaginative and prescient, what we’re calling a zero ETL future. And on this future, knowledge integration is now not a guide effort”, asserting help for “zero-ETL” answer that tightly integrates Amazon Aurora with Amazon Redshift. Underneath that integration, inside seconds of transactional knowledge being written into Aurora, the information is offered in Amazon Redshift. 

The advantages of an integration like this are apparent – no have to construct and preserve complicated knowledge pipelines, no duplicate knowledge storage (which will be costly), and all the time up-to-date.

Now, an integration between two Amazon databases in itself is just not sufficient to result in the tip of ETL alone, and there are causes to be skeptical a Zero ETL future would occur quickly

However then once more, Salesforce and Snowflake additionally introduced a partnership to share buyer knowledge in actual time throughout programs with out transferring or copying knowledge, which falls beneath the identical basic logic. Earlier than that, Stripe had launched an information pipeline to assist customers sync funds knowledge with Redshift and Snowflake. 

The idea of change knowledge seize is just not new, nevertheless it’s gaining steam. Google already helps  change knowledge seize in BigQuery. Azure Synapse does the identical by pre-integrating Azure Information Manufacturing facility. There’s a rising era of startups within the house like Estuary* and Upsolver.

Our sense is that we’re a good distance from ETL disappearing as a class, however the pattern is noteworthy.

Reverse ETL vs CDP

One other somewhat-in-the-weeds, however enjoyable to look at a part of the panorama has been the stress between Reverse ETL (once more, the method of taking knowledge out of the warehouse and placing it again into SaaS and different purposes) and Buyer Information Platforms (merchandise that mixture buyer knowledge from a number of sources, run analytics on them like segmentation, and allow actions like advertising campaigns). 

During the last yr or so, the 2 classes began converging into each other.  

Reverse ETL corporations presumably discovered that “simply” being a pipeline on prime of an information warehouse (not a straightforward technical feat) wasn’t commanding sufficient pockets share from clients, and that they wanted to go additional in offering worth round buyer knowledge. Many Reverse ETL distributors now place themselves as CDP from a advertising standpoint.   

In the meantime, CDP distributors discovered that being one other repository the place clients wanted to repeat large quantities of knowledge was at odds with the final pattern of centralization of knowledge across the knowledge warehouse (or lake or lakehouse). Due to this fact, CDP distributors began providing integration with the principle knowledge warehouse and lakehouse suppliers. See for instance ActionIQ* launching HybridCompute, mParticle launching Warehouse Sync, or Section introducing Reverse ETL capabilities. As they beef up their very own reverse ETL capabilities, CDP corporations are actually beginning to promote to a extra technical viewers of CIO and analytics groups, along with their historic consumers (CMOs).

The place does this depart Reverse ETL corporations? A technique they might evolve is to change into extra deeply built-in with the ETL suppliers, which we mentioned above. One other approach could be to additional evolve in the direction of turning into a CDP by including analytics and orchestration modules.  

Information mesh, merchandise, contracts: coping with organizational complexity

As nearly any knowledge practitioner is aware of firsthand: success with knowledge is definitely a technical and product effort, nevertheless it additionally very a lot revolves round course of and organizational points.

In lots of organizations, the information stack seems like a mini-version of the MAD panorama. You find yourself with quite a lot of groups engaged on quite a lot of merchandise. So how does all of it work collectively? Who’s accountable for what?

Debate has been raging in knowledge circles about greatest go about it. There’s a whole lot of nuances and a whole lot of discussions with good individuals disagreeing on, effectively, nearly any a part of it – however right here’s a fast overview. 

We had highlighted the knowledge mesh as an rising pattern within the 2021 MAD panorama. It’s solely been gaining traction since. The information mesh is a distributed, decentralized (not within the crypto sense) method to managing knowledge instruments and groups. See our Information Pushed NYC Hearth Chat: Zhamak Dehghani, the originator of the idea (and now CEO of NextData).

Be aware the way it’s totally different from a knowledge cloth – a extra technical idea, principally a single framework to attach all knowledge sources throughout the enterprise, no matter the place they’re bodily situated.

The information mesh results in an idea of knowledge merchandise – which may very well be something from a curated knowledge set to an utility or an API. The fundamental thought is that every group that creates the information product is absolutely answerable for it (together with high quality, uptime, and many others). Enterprise models throughout the enterprise then devour the information product on a self-service foundation. 

A associated thought is knowledge contracts – “API-like agreements between software program engineers who personal companies and knowledge shoppers that perceive how the enterprise works as a way to generate well-modeled, high-quality, trusted, real-time knowledge” (learn: “The Rise of Information Contracts”). There’s been all types of enjoyable debates concerning the idea (watch: “Information Contract Battle Royale w/ Chad Sanderson vs Ethan Aaron”). The essence of the dialogue is whether or not knowledge contracts solely make sense in very massive, very decentralized organizations, versus 90% of smaller corporations. 

General: A basic pattern in the direction of convergence

All through this part, we’ve danced across the identical theme – an general want for simplification in knowledge infrastructure, for the final word good thing about the shopper.

A few of the simplification can be company-driven – corporations including extra options and performance to their product line.

A few of will probably be market-driven – corporations consolidations via acquisitions, mergers, or sadly, going out of enterprise.

Lastly, some has been, and can proceed to be technology-driven. The convergence of streaming and batch processing is an evergreen, and necessary theme. So is the convergence of transactional (OLTP) and analytical (OLAP) workloads. AlloyDB from Google is the most recent entrant in that area, claiming being 100x sooner than normal PostgreSQL for analytical queries. And Snowflake launched Unistore, providing light-weight (for now) transaction processing capabilities, yet one more step in an general journey in the direction of breaking down silos between transactional and analytical knowledge.

Bonus: How will AI influence knowledge infrastructure? 

With the present explosive progress in AI, right here’s a enjoyable query: knowledge infrastructure has definitely been powering AI, however will AI now in flip influence knowledge infrastructure?

For certain, some knowledge infrastructure suppliers have already been utilizing AI for some time – see for instance, Anomalo leveraging ML to establish knowledge high quality points within the knowledge warehouse.  And plenty of database distributors now embed auto-ML capabilities.

However with the rise of Giant Language Fashions, there’s a brand new fascinating angle.  Simply the best way LLMs can create typical programming code, they’ll additionally generate SQL, the language of knowledge analysts. The concept of enabling non-technical customers to go looking analytical programs is just not new, and varied suppliers already help variations of it, see ThoughtSpot, Energy BI or Tableau.  Listed here are some good items on the subject: LLM Implications on Analytics (and Analysts!) by Tristan Helpful of dbt Labs and The Rapture and the Reckoning by Benn Stancil of Mode. 

READ NEXT: MAD 2023, PART IV: TRENDS IN ML/AI



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